JIHAD ACCORDING TO THE QURAN AND SUNNAH
The order for Jihad
The Noble Qur'an 2.190-193: And fight in the Way of Allāh those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allāh likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihād, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harām (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. But if they cease, then Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allāh) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allāh (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zālimūn (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)
The Noble Qur'an 9.36: That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikūn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allāh) collectively, as they fight against you collectively.
The Noble Qur'an 8.72-74: Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allāh as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, - these are (all) allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad SAW), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate, but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, and Allāh is the All-Seer of what you do. And those who disbelieve are allies to one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so (i.e. become allies, as one united block with one Khalifah - chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world to make victorious Allāh's Religion of Islāmic Monotheism), there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism, etc.) and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism). And those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard in the Cause of Allāh (Al-Jihād), as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid; - these are the believers in truth, for them is forgiveness and Rizqun Karīm (a generous provision i.e. Paradise).
Hadith - Bukhari, Vol. 4, No. 41, Narrated 'Abdullaah bin Mas'uud: I asked Allah's Messenger , "O Allah's Messenger! What is the best deed?" He replied, "To offer the prayers at their early fixed stated times." I asked, "What is next in goodness?" He replied, "To be good and dutiful to your parents." I further asked, "What is next in goodness?" He replied, "To participate in Jihad in Allah's Cause." I did not ask Allah's Messenger anymore and if I had asked him more, he would have told me more.
The Noble Qur'an 2.216: Jihād (holy fighting in Allāh's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allāh knows but you do not know.
Hadith - Al-Tirmidhi #3835, Narrated AbuHurayrah: Allah's Messenger said, "If anyone meets Allah with no mark of jihad, he will meet Allah with a flaw in him." [Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah transmitted it]
The Noble Qur'an An-Nisaa' 4.75-76: And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allāh, and for those weak, illtreated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help." Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allāh, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Tāghūt (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitān (Satan); Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitān (Satan).
The Good Deed and Blessings of Jihad
The Noble Qur'an 9.20: Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allāh - Islāmic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allāh's Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allāh. They are the successful.
Hadith - Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 41, Narrated Abdullah bin Masud: I asked Allah's Apostle, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the best deed?" He replied, "To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times." I asked, "What is next in goodness?" He replied, "To be good and dutiful to your parents." I further asked, what is next in goodness?" He replied, "To participate in Jihad in Allah's Cause." I did not ask Allah's Apostle anymore and if I had asked him more, he would have told me more.
The Noble Qur'an As-Saff 61.10-14: O You who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment. That you believe in Allāh and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allāh with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! (If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn Eternity ['Adn (Edn) Paradise], that is indeed the great success. And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love, help from Allāh (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad SAW) to the believers. O you who believe! Be you helpers (in the Cause) of Allāh as said 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), to AlHawārīeen (the disciples) : "Who are my helpers (in the Cause) of Allāh?" AlHawārīeen (the disciples) said: "We are Allāh's helpers" (i.e. we will strive in His Cause!). Then a group of the Children of Israel believed and a group disbelieved. So We gave power to those who believed against their enemies, and they became the uppermost.
Finding Strength for the Battles
The Noble Qur'an An-Nisaa' 4.104: And don't be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allāh (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not, and Allāh is Ever AllKnowing, AllWise.
See also: The Noble Qur'an 3:139; 3:160; 30:47; 8:15
Abu Dawood 2493, Narrated Abu Malik al-Ash'ari: AbuMalik heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: He who goes forth in Allah's path and dies or is killed is a martyr, or has his neck broken through being thrown by his horse or by his camel, or is stung by a poisonous creature, or dies on his bed by any kind of death Allah wishes is a martyr and will go to Paradise.
Hadith - Qudsi 6: The first of people against whom judgment will be pronounced on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who died a martyr. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His favours and he will recognize them. [ The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied - you did but fight that it might be said [of you]: He is courageous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man who has studied [religious] knowledge and has taught it and who used to recite the Quran. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I studied [religious] knowledge and I taught it and I recited the Quran for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but study [religious] knowledge that it might be said [of you]: He is learned. And you recited the Quran that it might be said [of you]: He is a reciter. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man whom Allah had made rich and to whom He had given all kinds of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I left no path [untrodden] in which You like money to be spent without spending in it for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but do so that it might be said [of you]: He is open-handed. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire.
What is the Muslimah's role in Jihad?
Hadith - Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 43, Narrated 'Aisha: (That she said), "O Allah's Apostle! We consider Jihad as the best deed. Should we not fight in Allah's cause?" He said, "The best Jihad (for women) is Hajj-mabrur (i.e. Hajj which is done according to the Prophet's tradition and is accepted by Allah)."
Following is an example of a woman given permission to participate in jihad, but note her fatal outcome. Also note that her role was that of accompanying her husband in HIS jihad. So, it's not like she had a jihad task vastly seperate from her husband, as though a woman would be sent to fight a battle of jihad in one part of the country while her husband was tied up in a separate jihad.
Hadith - Sahih Bukhari, Narrated Anas bin Malik: Um Haram said, "Once the Prophet slept in my house near to me and got up smiling. I said, 'What makes you smile?' He replied, 'Some of my followers who (i.e. in a dream) were presented to me sailing on this green sea like kings on thrones.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah to make me one of them.' " So the Prophet invoked Allah for her and went to sleep again. He did the same (i.e. got up and told his dream) and Um Haram repeated her question and he gave the same reply. She said, "Invoke Allah to make me one of them."
He said, "You are among the first batch." Later on it happened that she went out in the company of her husband 'Ubada bin As-Samit who went for Jihad and it was the first time the Muslims undertook a naval expedition led by Mu'awiya. When the expedition came to an end and they were returning to Sham, a riding animal was presented to her to ride, but the animal let her fall and thus she died.
Another example of women in jihad other than the jihad of Hajj......
Hadith - Sahih Muslim, Narrated Anas: On the day (of the battle) of Uhad when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet, I saw 'Aisha bint Abu Bakr and Um Sulaim, with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins (in another narration it is said, "carrying the water skins on their backs"). Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people.
These are proofs to show that a woman's role in jihad is different from men, yet much needed, and designed to keep her more distant from the direct line of battle for her safety. A woman's jihad besides Hajj, is to support the men of the community in their jihad. The best way to do that, insha'Allah, like anything, is to ASK how you can be of benefit, not to assume a role and hope that's what's helpful
Another related point. Gender segregation is very important in Islam. But please note, that when necessary, such as times of battle, giving water to the soldiers, and other jobs in our lives that put us near men out of necessity, are part of jihad, insha'Allah, that is, IF we are doing it solely for the sake of Allah, swt, and not just "for the money" and its pleasures, to get recognition of the men, to pass the boredom, to puff the ego, increase our status in the eyes of people, or anything else. All that work you do can be nullified if done for the wrong reason, and Allah alone knows which deeds will actually be accepted on Judgement Day.
It is important that women, including single women, who desire to participate in jihad outside the home, find ways to support the jihad of the males in the community, separating herself from their conversations, let them do the planning, the masjid building, etc., but doing the work needed when she can, insha'Allah. Of course she should start with her husband and children, then father and other mahram men to support in their jihad. If she doesn't know how to cook and the men meet in the masajid for regular meetings, perhaps she and another sister should get together and ask if they'd like meals sometimes, and if so, find a way to do that.
Just like women like men to fix things around the house, there are men who don't know how at the beginning of the marriage and eventually teach themselves out of necessity, to do so. So, not knowing HOW to do something, like cooking for large groups of people, or whatever, doesn't mean we shouldn't learn what is necessary and "get to it", insha'Allah! Just like when a person says shahada and doesn't know how to do salah, this doesn't give them an excuse not to start learning how.
So, let's start learning how we can do the things that support the brothers on the front line in jihad, if this type of jihad beyond hajj is something, thru dua to Allah, swt, we believe we should be doing, and Allah the Majestic, the Most Great knows the conditions of all persons. OIf you are physically unable, perhaps you are financially able and willing to contribute through sadaqa to jihad efforts.
Those who have the time and inclination, please join Muttaqun Foundation for opportunities of jihad, and this starts with spreading the daw'ah to the straying Muslims first, to build up the Muslim communities so we can best be prepared to bring in the new Muslims as they are coming in, and they surely are coming in, masha'Allah. It STARTS with the daw'ah in its many forms, but its "END" or more appropriately, "down the road", comes many tests and trials. Before you commit yourself to such jihad, remember the sister above who fell off the riding animal and died.
Nobody said the path would be easy; wearing niqab alone can become jihad in an oppressive land. This jihad spoken of can involve sacrifices, but most importantly it involves OBEDIENCE. Allah, subhana wa tala, says He does not need our sacrifice but desires our obedience. Obedience in the salah, obedience and submission to the husband, obedience in guarding our tongue.
And women can't do this path alone without men, for surely women were created with the need of the leadership and guidance of men on the Sunnah, as they were created with the need for women to support and encouragement to stay on the sirataal mustaqeem.
To the Muslims who have read thus far, may Allah swt bless your sincerity with strength, and your knowledge with the ability to apply that knowledge wisely. Amin.